Fasting blood sugar levels
Fasting blood sugar level (sometimes called fasting plasma glucose) is a fasting blood sugar level (without eating or drinking anything except water) for at least 8 hours. The purpose of doing a fasting blood sugar test is to determine how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood, and this test is commonly used to detect diabetes or prediabetes. Blood tests are usually measured in a laboratory, doctor's office, or hospital. A blood sample can be drawn from a vein in the arm and collected in a tube that will then be analyzed by a laboratory. Or, a blood sample can be obtained by pricking a finger with a lancet.
Normal fasting blood sugar levels in people without diabetes
A normal blood glucose level for someone without diabetes ranges from 70 to 99 mg / dl. The American Diabetes Association recommends a routine exam for type 2 diabetes starting at age 45. If the results are normal, the test should be repeated every 3 years.
If you have diabetes risk factors such as being overweight or obese, having a family history of type 2 diabetes, having a history of gestational diabetes, or being of a certain race / ethnicity (African American, Latino, Asian American, Pacific Islander, or Native American), you should have diabetes testing before age 45.
Children and adolescents who have symptoms of diabetes or who are overweight and have a family history of type 2 diabetes are of African American, Latino, Asian American, Native American, or Pacific Islander descent who have signs of prediabetes (acanthosis nigricans, blood pressure high , high cholesterol) or a mother who had gestational diabetes should be tested from 10 years and then from 3 years.
A fasting blood sugar of 100 to 125 mg / dl is indicative of prediabetes, which is a condition where blood sugar levels are above "normal" but not high enough to be considered diabetes. Prediabetes is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. It is controlled by lifestyle changes and, in some cases, by medications.
Official recommendation of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) for fasting blood sugar levels for people with diabetes
The American Diabetes Association recommends a fasting blood sugar goal of 80 to 130 mg / dl for most adults, including non-pregnant women with diabetes. However, fasting blood sugar level may need to be individualized for certain people based on certain factors such as duration of diabetes, age and life expectancy, cognitive status, other health conditions, cardiovascular complications, and unknown hypoglycemia. It is important that
People with diabetes discuss their blood sugar goals with their healthcare provider.
What is a normal blood sugar level after eating?
Post-meal blood sugar levels in people without diabetes
A normal blood sugar level is less than 140 mg / dl. A blood sugar between 140 and 199 mg / dl is considered prediabetes, and a blood sugar level of 200 mg / dl or higher may indicate diabetes. Someone who does not have blood diabetes is unlikely to be measuring their blood sugar levels. However, one of the diabetes screening tests is called an oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT. (A slightly different version of the OGTT is also used to diagnose gestational diabetes, which is diabetes that develops during pregnancy.) For this test, the person needs to fast overnight and go to the doctor's office or lab in the morning. A blood sample is required to measure fasting blood sugar. Then, the person drinks a sugary drink that contains 75 grams of sugar. Two hours later, blood sugar is measured again.
Normal post-meal blood sugar levels for people with diabetes
The American Diabetes Association recommends that the blood sugar level 1 to 2 hours after the start of a meal be less than 180 mg / dl for most adults and non-pregnant women with diabetes. This is typically the maximum, or highest, level of blood sugar in someone with diabetes. Again, this goal may need to be individualized in certain people based on factors such as duration of diabetes, age and life expectancy, cognitive status, other health conditions, cardiovascular complications, and unknown hypoglycemia. It is important for people with diabetes to discuss their blood sugar goal goals with their healthcare provider.
The HbA1C (glycosylated hemoglobin) test is a blood test that measures the average blood glucose level for the past 3 months. Other names for this test are hemoglobin A1C, A1C, glycated hemoglobin, and glycated hemoglobin test. A person does not need to fast before having an HbA1C test. In other words, it is okay to eat or drink something beforehand. The HbA1C test may not be accurate for some people, including those with anemias and those receiving HIV treatment, and for people of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian descent. HbA1C result is measured as a percentage; the higher the percentage, the higher the blood sugar level.
In addition to being a tool for diagnosing diabetes, the HbA1C test is used to help people with diabetes manage their condition.
Normal HbA1c for people without diabetes
For someone who does not have diabetes, a normal HbA1C level is below 5.7%. An A1C between 5.7% and 6.4% is indicative of prediabetes.
It is recommended that adults over 45 years of age, or adults under 45 years of age who are overweight and have one or more diabetes risk factors, undergo an A1C test. If the result is normal, the A1C should be repeated every 3 years. If the result indicates prediabetes, the A1C should be repeated for 1 to 2 years.
Official ADA recommendation for HbA1c for people with diabetes
The American Diabetes Association recommends HbA1C less than 7% for most non-pregnant adults with diabetes. A lower goal, less than 6.5%, may be appropriate for some people who have had diabetes for a shorter period of time, for younger people, for people without heart disease and / or for those with type diabetes 2 treated with lifestyle or metformin only . A higher HbA1C goal, such as less than 8%, may be appropriate for people with a history of severe hypoglycemia, a limited life expectancy, advanced complications of diabetes, other diseases, or for whom it is difficult to achieve a lower HbA1C goal. . It is important for people with diabetes to discuss their blood